• Q. 自己紹介をお願いします。
  • Q. 遭難の一要因としての道迷い遭難について教えてください。
  • Q. 道迷いの最大の要因は?
  • Q. 地図読みの学習を登山で活かすためには?
  • Q. コンパスの勉強方法は?
  • Q. もし道に迷った際はどのような対処をしたらよろしいでしょうか?
  • Q. 登山に行く方にアドバイスをお願いします。
  • Q. 日常で地図読みをする練習方法はありますか?
  • Q. メッセージをお願いします。
  • Q. Could you please tell us about yourself?
  • Q. Please tell us about getting lost on the mountain as it is one of the factors leading to serious situations.
  • Q. What are the reasons for getting lost?
  • Q. How can we apply map reading skills to climbing?
  • Q. How about learning how to use a compass?
  • Q. What advice do you give to people in case they get lost?
  • Q. What advice would you like to give to climbers?
  • Q. Are there any ways to practice reading the maps on a daily basis?
  • Q. What else would you like to say to people who like climbing?

村越 真

Q. 自己紹介をお願いします。 Q. Could you please tell us about yourself?


I am Makoto Murakoshi. I am from the Department of Education of Shizuoka University. I have competed in Orienteering for many years, and these days I am engaged in research on accidents and risk management on the mountain. Today I am going to talk about the most common reason for getting lost on the mountain.

Q. 遭難の一要因としての道迷い遭難について教えてください。 Q. Please tell us about getting lost on the mountain as it is one of the factors leading to serious situations.

山岳遭難の中で道迷いは最大の遭難で、おおむね40%を占めています。一言で道迷い遭難が多いといっても年代とか性別、また季節によっても様々です。 例えば男性ですと、全ての年代でほぼ道迷いが最大の遭難になっています。 一方女性では、20歳代、60歳代の道迷いが非常に多くなっています。 また、山や季節を見ると夏の高山、ここでは道迷い遭難はそれほど多くありませんが、 低山(低い山)では道迷いは年間を通じて多く、また夏でも多くなっています。

Losing your way is the most common factor leading to serious difficulties on the mountain. About 40 % of all cases are thought to be started by losing your way. The degree of seriousness depends on the climbers’ age, gender and the season. For example, among male climbers, getting lost is the biggest factor which leads to serious situations, and it happens to males of all ages. On the other hand, among women climbers, it happens mostly to people in their 20s and 60s. The number of cases is not so high in the high elevation mountains in summer. It happens more frequently on the not so high mountains, regardless of season.

Q. 道迷いの最大の要因は? Q. What are the reasons for getting lost?

道迷いに至る理由はいろいろありますが、やはり一番多いのが、コースについてよく知らない。多くの方は初めての山に行く訳ですから、これは当然の事だと思います。問題は地図とかコンパス、これが使えないことだと思います。持っていない人はほとんどいない訳ですが、使い方をわかっていない。それによって迷った時にどうしようもなくなり、道迷い遭難をしてしまうと、これが多い訳です。 もう一つは、日没つまり日暮れてしまって自分では行動できずに救助を求めるというパターンです。道迷い遭難の多くは夕方4時過ぎに発生していることからも、これは日没によって帰れなくなり、救助を求めているのだと推測できます。こちらのほうは自分の力量と合わないコースを選ぶ事で、時間切れになってしまう、これが根本的な原因だと考えられます。

There are many different reasons, but the most common reason is that people do not know enough about their route. Most people are climbing a mountain for the first time, so I think it is to be expected. The trouble is that many people do not know how to read maps or use a compass. Pretty much everyone has one, but do not necessarily know how to use it. Because of that, they are totally at a loss as to what they should do. Another common situation is when the sun sets before people have reached their destination. Many cases of people calling for help occurs after 4 pm. It shows that they could not reach their destination before sunset, and got lost due to poor visibility. Misjudging the route and not understanding your level of ability can be contributing factors.

Q. 地図読みの学習を登山で活かすためには? Q. How can we apply map reading skills to climbing?

まずは自己流ではなくどんな読み方をしたら良いかということを本や講習会で学ぶ事です。ただ地図読みというのは、聞いてすぐわかるというものではないので、何度も反復練習する事も必要です。ですからその前には、ポイントを絞って、大事なところをおさえて地図読みを活用し登山をしていく事が必要になると思います。 では、大事な事は何かというと、2つのポイントがあります。 1つは現在地がわかること、つまり居場所をおさえながら歩くという事です。 もう一つはルートを維持する。正しい道を辿っているかどうかを常に確認しながら歩く。 この二つが大きなポイントになります。またそのためには、分かりやすい目印を地図から読み取る、そしてコンパスを使って方向を常に確認する。この二つを意識してやるという事がまず優先なポイントになると思います。

Instead of playing it by ear, I recommend you study from books or take a special course for how to read maps. Just sitting through a course is not enough, so I recommend you spend time reviewing what you learned as I think repeated practice is the key. I think that it is important in mountain climbing to focus on some key points with regard to map reading. There are two things which are important to know. One is to know where you are. This means you know where you are all the time as you walk. Another thing is to stay on track. Constantly check that you are on the right track. These are the two main points. To do those two things, you need to pick some easy land marks from the map, and use the compass to check the direction to them. Doing these two things consciously is a top priority.

Q. コンパスの勉強方法は? Q. How about learning how to use a compass?


When it comes to compasses, probably you think of the ones known as SILVA compasses with a plate. Of course, they are very efficient and have multiple functions. However, some people find them too complicated and not easy to use. Just start with one that you can understand which way is north. The red hand shows which direction is north, right? Yes, then you can find out which way you are facing. You can find out which way is west, east, southeast and so on. That’s a good start.

Q. もし道に迷った際はどのような対処をしたらよろしいでしょうか? Q. What advice do you give to people in case they get lost?


In reality, there is not a lot you can do when you are lost. Knowing how not to get lost in the first place is more important. But, in reality, there is always the possibility for anybody, even for the experts like us, to get lost. As soon as you have some doubts, check your location, check what you expect to be seeing with what you are actually seeing, to quickly check when something feels strange, that’s the best way to deal with the situation.

Q. 登山に行く方にアドバイスをお願いします。 Q. What advice would you like to give to climbers?

まず何よりも出発前に地図をよく読んで欲しいと思います。地図からいろんな情報が得られます。まずは距離とかコースタイム、それによってこのコースが自分にとって十分なものなのかどうか、それとも自分の力を超えたものなのか、それがわかります。わかれば当然短くしなければなりませんね。 第2にリスクがわかります。そのコースが急な場所を通るのか、岩場を通るのか、あるいは何千メートルのところまであがるのか、それを読む事によって気温が下がるか、雨風が厳しくならないか、そんな事も推測できます。そして最後に自分の通るルートがどんな地形を通るのか、どんな方向に向かっているのか、そういうものを動き出す前に読む事で当日の地図読みの負担が減り、道迷いも減ると思います。

First of all, please study the map in advance. Maps give you a lot of information. Maps give you ideas of the distance and the time it takes, so you can know if the course is within or beyond your level of ability, then you can understand if you need to change your route. Second of all, you’ll foresee the risks you are taking. You’ll understand whether the route has any steep slopes, any rocky areas, how high you are going to climb, any possibility of a drop in temperature, any possibility of rain and gusts of wind and so on. You can also know in advance the contour of the route, and which direction it heads in. Understanding all these things beforehand reduces the amount of time you need to stop and check the map while climbing, and consequently reduces the risk of getting lost.

Q. 日常で地図読みをする練習方法はありますか? Q. Are there any ways to practice reading the maps on a daily basis?

実は皆さんも日常の生活の中で地図を使われてますよね? 例えば初めてのレストラン、飲み屋に行く時、インターネットで地図をダウンロードしていると思います。 その地図を使う時に意識すればいいと思います。例えばどのルートを行くのが分かりやすいか、早いか、そして曲がり角にどんな目印があるのか、そういう視点で地図を読んで行くとそれは山でも応用できると思います。

I am pretty sure you all use maps on a daily basis, right? For example, I think that many of you download maps from the Internet when you go to restaurants or places for drinks for the first time. You need to be a little more focused when reading those maps. For instance, be more conscious to find out which route is easier, takes less time, and what landmark is located on the corner and so forth. If you read maps in that way, the same thing can apply to reading maps while in the mountains.

Q. メッセージをお願いします。 Q. What else would you like to say to people who like climbing?

私は40年間ぐらい地図を使ってオリエンテーリングというスポーツをやってきました。 地図というものは迷わないために見るものですけれども、ゲームとかスポーツにも使えます。 そして、その中で迷わず目的地に行けば達成感にも繋がります。 地図が見れる事でルートの面白さ、こんなものが見えるかもしれないな、そんな事もわかると思います。迷わないために地図が読めるようになるというのはもちろんですけど、地図を見る事を通して、山の楽しさをもっと増やして欲しいなと思っています。

I competed in orienteering which involves map reading for about 40 years. We use maps so that we won’t lose our way, but maps are also used for games and sports. Getting to the destination without getting lost boosts your sense of accomplishment. Being able to read maps helps you enjoy the route more and provides more information on what you will see along the way. It is good to be able to read maps, for the sake of not getting lost, of course, but in addition to that, I hope it will enhance the joy of climbing mountains.

村越 真

村越 真


A former Professor at Shizuoka University and is currently the Principal at Fuzoku Shizuoka Elementary School. The Managing Director of the Japan Orienteering Association An Examiner of the Japan Sport Council Specialist in Cognitive Psychology and Risk Management. Combining his acquired knowledge on reading maps, navigation skills through orienteering and his research on theoretical and practical Psychology regarding the reading of maps, Murakoshi is an active promoter and a lecturer on navigation skills for not only orienteering but also climbing and other various outdoor activities.